Taslim is active as a model and actor, appearing in magazines, TV commercials and several Indonesian feature films. In 2010, Taslim won the role of Jaka, a sergeant in a special police squad, in the award-winning The Raid, after a series of impressive fight auditions and reading. Following The Raid, Taslim took part in HBO Asia's first action horror film, Dead Mine, which had a theatrical release in selected Asian territories in September 2012, followed by exclusive television premieres across the HBO Asia network.
Taslim appeared in the feature film Fast & Furious 6 (2013), as the villainous Jah, a mercenary who uses his martial arts to fight two of the film's protagonists, Roman Pearce (Tyrese Gibson) and Han Seoul-Oh (Sung Kang).
In May 2013, it was reported that Taslim would star in the action thriller film The Night Comes for Us. In September 2014, pre-production on the film was halted and the script was instead adapted as a graphic novel. The film was eventually released by Netflix on October 19, 2018. In 2016, he played an antagonist character, Manas, a former first officer of Captain Balthazar Edison (played by Idris Elba), Anderson Le, turned into an alien in Star Trek Beyond. In 2017, Taslim was cast in the role of Li Yong in the Cinemax action series, Warrior. The series premiered on April 5, 2019.
In July 2019, Taslim was cast as Sub-Zero in Mortal Kombat, set for release in 2021.