Schulze was born and grew up in St. Louis, Missouri, and spent a good deal of time in the rough neighborhoods of East Saint Louis, Illinois. At age 16, he moved to Atlanta, where he studied guitar at the Atlanta Institute of Music. He moved to Los Angeles in 1992 to be a studio musician, but ended up doing both acting and modeling. He appeared in a Levi's commercial, after living in Europe for two years.
Schulze made his big screen debut in 1998's action thriller Blade, as the character Crease. He was also in an episode of Charmed, titled "Dream Sorcerer", in which he went into the dreams of women and killed them. In 1999, Schulze was cast in a leading role in Woody Keith's thriller Dementia. His next film was the teen comedy Boys and Girls, where he had a small role as Paul.
In 2001, he starred in Downward Angel. The same year Schulze the blockbuster The Fast and the Furious. He gained muscle weight, grew a beard, and dyed his hair a different color for the film. Schulze returned in Blade II playing fierce Bloodpack vampire assassin Chupa, and in the same year Schulze was cast as another villain in The Transporter, starring Jason Statham as the lead. He lost some 40 pounds in order to effectively play the character in The Transporter, doing so by fasting for 16 days. In 2004, he appeared in Torque.
Since then he has appeared in numerous films, including The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things, Seven Mummies, and Final Move. He has also appeared in an episode of CSI: Miami and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. In 2007, he appeared in The Flock and Mr. Brooks.
In 2008, Schulze wrote, directed, and starred in the web series film, The Acquirer. The film was shot on location in Paris, France, and was filmed entirely in high definition. Schulze starred opposite Tom Sizemore as Lucien, an international jewelry thief. He moved to LA and began training in mixed martial arts. In 2011, Schulze returned for Fast Five, reprising his role as Vince.